Showing posts with label Montenegro. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Montenegro. Show all posts

Jul 16, 2021

Kotor Old City II


Kotor old city from different angle.

1/160 sn.
F/4
3,8 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Kotor Old City


Kotor old city from top.

1/125 sn.
F/4
3,8 mm
ISO 160
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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San Giovanni Castle


 San Giovanni Castle over the fortifications of Kotor and Kotor ol city.

1/250 sn.
F/5,6
72,70 mm
ISO 400
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jul 15, 2021

Fortifications of Kotor II

 

On top of the mountain is the San Giovanni castel at a 280-meter height dominating the eastern bay, the fortification system and the city. Behind the castle hill the inhabitable and mountainous countryside further ascends toward the Lovcen. The circumference of the outer wall is 4.5 km, with a thickness between 2 and 16 meters, and a height up to 20 meters.

1/320 sn.
F/5
29,52 mm
ISO 400
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jul 14, 2021

History of Kotor III


With the Congress of Vienna Kotor was returned to the Austrian Empire. After their defeat in World War I the Austrians left and the fortress was no longer manned. During World War II Kotor was occupied by the Axis forces and was part of Italy's Governorate of Dalmatia. German troops occupied the city in September 1943: it was liberated on 21 November 1944, a date commemorated over the Sea Gate. Severe earthquakes that damaged the fortifications occurred in 1563, 1667, and most recently, on 15 April 1979.
 
1/160 sn.
F/4,5
7,95 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jul 13, 2021

History of Kotor II


As part of Albania Veneta the fortifications received their current structure. During this time there were two successful Ottoman sieges followed by occupations, 1538 – 1571 and 1657 – 1699. In 1797 the fortifications passed to the Habsburg Monarchy with the Treaty of Campo Formio. In 1805, Kotor was assigned to the French Empire's client state, the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy by the Treaty of Pressburg, but initially occupied by Russian troops under Dmitry Senyavin until they left after the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807. Three years later it was incorporated into the French Empire's Illyrian Provinces. The fortifications of the city were attacked by the British naval Captain William Hoste with his ship HMS Bacchante. In an "unmilitary manner" he hauled his ships' cannon to positions above the fort using block and tackle and started the shelling. After a ten-day siege, the French garrison had no alternative and surrendered on 5 January 1814...
 
1/250 sn.
F/5,6
77,45 mm
ISO 640
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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The Church of Our Lady of Remedy


The Church of Our Lady of Remedy is a Roman Catholic church located in Kotor, belonging to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Kotor. The church is perched on the slope of San Giovanni Mountain. The Church of Our Lady of Remedy was completed in 1518. The church can only be reached on foot. It should also be noted that the stairs and rocks that lead to the church make it a difficult and time-consuming place to reach. Nevertheless, many tourists and local citizens visit this church daily. It can be seen from a long distance away. The oldest known building in Montenegro, dating back to the 6th century, based on archaeological evidence has been found under the Church of Our Lady of Remedy. The building found was an early Christian basilica, that is located close to the main city gate in the Old Town of Kotor.
 
1/100 sn.
F/5,6
51,12 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Inside The Wall


The old town of Kotor is contained within the city walls and a well preserved and restored medieval cityscape with notable buildings including the Cathedral of Saint Tryphon.
 
1/125 sn.
F/4
3,8 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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The North Gate


The north gate of the fortifications of Kotor.

1/500 sn.
F/4
5,52 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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The Moat


The river Skurda creates this natural moat and helps the city defence.

1/60 sn.
F/5
15,48 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jul 12, 2021

History of Kotor I


The top of the mountain of San Giovanni was already fortified during Illyrian times. In the 6th century the emperor Justinian I reconstructed the fortress. With the retreat of the Byzantines, eventually and in spite of numerous incursions some independence was attained, however this had no lasting effects upon the fortifications. This changed when in 1420 the then independent Republic of Cattaro, one of the neolatin Dalmatian city-states, succumbed to Venetian rule...
 
1/125 sn.
F/4
5,52 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 
 

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Jul 11, 2021

Fortificazioni di Cattaro


The medieval part of the town of Kotor is located on a triangular piece of land that is bordered by the most inner extension of the Bay of Kotor at its south-western side, the river Skurda toward the North, and the mountain of San Giovanni towards the East. City walls protect the city on its northern and south-western side, towards the waters. The walls are fortified by bastions, most prominent being the Kampana tower and citadel near the point where the river enters the bay. Close to it is the Sea Gate from 1555 allowing access from the bay, the two other gates to the city are the River Gate from 1540 with the nearby Bembo Bastion from 1540 and the Gurdic Gate, the latter modified many times and fortified by the Gurdic Bastion from 1470. The Bembo Bastion has been converted into an open theatre. Two additional gates were present, one walled up south of the Sea Gate, the other, Spiljarskia Gate, within the ramparts of the hillside towards the old road to Cetinje. From the Bembo Bastion and the Gurdic Bastion ramparts climb up to the top of the San Giovanni Mountain that backs the city. The ramparts have positions at various points; within them is a network of communications as well as additional buildings including the Church of Our Lady of Remedy from 1518. On top of the mountain is the San Giovanni castel at a 280-meter height dominating the eastern bay, the fortification system and the city. Behind the castle hill the inhabitable and mountainous countryside further ascends toward the Lovcen. The circumference of the outer wall is 4.5 km, with a thickness between 2 and 16 meters, and a height up to 20 meters.
 
1/400 sn.
F/3,4
3,8 mm
ISO 400
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jul 10, 2021

The Fortifications of Kotor


The fortifications of Kotor are an integrated historical fortification system that protected the medieval town of Kotor containing ramparts, towers, citadels, gates, bastions, forts, cisterns, a castle, and ancillary buildings and structures. They incorporate military architecture mainly of Venice, but also a few of Illyria, Byzantium, and Austria. Together with the old town and its natural surroundings the fortifications were inscribed in the list of World Heritage Sites in 1979 labelled Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor and represent the only such site of cultural significance in Montenegro.

The fortified city of Kotor was also included in UNESCO's World Heritage Site list as part of Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries: Stato da Terra – western Stato da Mar in 2017.
 
1/160 sn.
F/4
3,8 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jul 9, 2021

The Kampana Tower


The Kampana Tower. The walls of Kotor Frotification are fortified by bastions, most prominent being the Kampana tower and citadel near the point where the river enters the bay.

1/500 sn.
F/4
3,8 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jul 8, 2021

Sea Gate


Sea Gate of Kotor Old Town City Walls, main entrance to city.

1/200 sn.
F/4 
6,56 mm
ISO 100
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS

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Jul 7, 2021

Trees


I always like to be in nature, especially in forets. It is not important where or which kind of forests. Trees are always in my focus.

1/80 sn.
F/4
3,8 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jul 4, 2021

Gulf of Kotor IV


Gulf of Kotor.

1/200 sn.
F/5
25,41 mm
ISO 100
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jul 3, 2021

Gulf of Kotor III


Gulf of Kotor.

1/800 sn.
F/4
3,8 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jul 2, 2021

Gulf of Kotor II


Gulf of Kotor.

1/800 sn.
F/4
3,8 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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Jun 29, 2021

Clouds over Budva


 Clouds over Budva.

1/1000 sn.
F/5,6 
8,28 mm
ISO 200
Canon PowerShot SX60 HS
 

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